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Gli zuccheri: nemici della salute?

A cena con Copernico

Copernico, che c’entra costui? Quale frontiera ha valicato l’astronomo polacco a cavallo tra il Quattrocento e il Cinquecento per giungere tra gli argomenti di un laboratorio di Nutrizione? Non vogliano queste provocazioni come un pretesto utile solo ad avviare altri temi nascosti come i guerrieri all’ interno del Cavallo di Troia.

A Rutigliano, il 12 marzo 2019, l’oratorio San Filippo Neri ha offerto un invito a cena un po’ particolare: la missione principale è stata recuperare la parola “Dieta” dalla selva dei luoghi comuni per riappropriarsene in prospettiva di un miglioramento del proprio stile di vita. Bisogna cambiare prospettiva di giudizio sulle diete perché le più recenti ricerche scientifiche sembrano annunciare l’alba di un’autentica rivoluzione copernicana nell’ ambito della Nutrizione. Ecco il motivo per cui il Biologo Nutrizionista, Dott. Marco Troisi di Rutigliano, ha intitolato l’incontro di divulgazione scientifica come “A cena con Copernico”.

Meno grassi vs meno zuccheri

Sforzarsi con l’immaginazione non serve granché quando si vuole trovare la soluzione per perdere qualche chiletto. In genere si seguono le indicazioni dei marchi pubblicitari con un’accurata attenzione verso i prodotti “light”, alimenti leggeri, con pochi grassi. In fondo per perdere grasso sembra che basti introdurre poco grasso con l’alimentazione. Tuttavia, la letteratura scientifica è ricca non solo di casi clinici ma anche di metanalisi ( studi complessi che rielaborano i risultati di decine di lavori scientifici) che riconoscono l’efficacia delle diete chetogeniche (diete povere in zuccheri) nella perdita più rapida del peso nelle prime settimane di dieta. Tra “Diete con pochi grassi” e “Diete con pochi zuccheri” ad avere la meglio sono quest’ultime! Però il confronto, almeno stavolta, non deve portare ad una scelta esclusiva del vincitore: non bisogna incoraggiare la “Carbofobia”, ovvero l’esclusione completa degli zuccheri dalla dieta. Infatti, a lungo andare, la mancanza di zuccheri può provocare disturbi intestinali, carenza di fibre, ipertensione, disidratazione, nausea e stanchezza.




Zuccheri allo scoperto

Tante volte si dice “non fare di tutta l’erba un fascio”. Questo proverbio calza perfettamente con il successivo argomento: gli zuccheri. Invece di eliminarli, si provi a conoscerli meglio e a capire quali potrebbero favorire più facilmente l’aumento del peso corporeo. Gli zuccheri non sono tutti uguali: chimicamente si distinguono in semplici e complessi. Gli zuccheri complessi sono nel pane, nei prodotti da forno, nella pasta, nel riso, nelle patate, nel mais e nei legumi. Mentre, gli zuccheri semplici caratterizzano il latte, il miele, gli sciroppi di glucosio-fruttosio, la frutta, i succhi di frutta e il comunissimo zucchero da cucina. Riguardo il consumo di zuccheri semplici, l’Organizzazione Mondiale della Sanità (OMS) ha elaborato dei preziosi orientamenti sia per adulti sia per bambini con le Linee Guida del 2015 dal titolo “Sugar intake for adults and children”.

Ed ecco finalmente, è proprio il caso di rivelare come “dulcis in fundo”, la portata principale della bizzarra cena con Copernico: rendere nota l’esortazione dell’OMS sul moderato consumo di zuccheri semplici per tutte le fasi della vita. In particolare, ci sono forti prove scientifiche che associano importanti benefici per la salute umana (in termini di perdita di peso e riduzione della comparsa di carie) se gli zuccheri semplici rappresentano meno del 10% delle calorie totali introdotte con la dieta.

Per esempio, considerando una dieta bilanciata da duemila chilocalorie, l’apporto giornaliero di zuccheri dovrebbe essere minore di cinquanta grammi. Non finisce qui, ci sono alcuni studi giapponesi (dell’immediato secondo dopoguerra) che mostrano un ulteriore beneficio per la salute dentale se solo la famosa percentuale del 10% si riducesse al 5%. Per questi pochi studi, l’OMS è ambiziosa nel suggerire alla popolazione mondiale il virtuoso consumo di zuccheri minore del 5% dell’apporto calorico giornaliero; il che significa che un soggetto con una dieta bilanciata dovrebbe consumare giornalmente meno di venticinque grammi di zuccheri!

È chiedere troppo? Certissimamente bisogna diffondere il messaggio, affinché i più volenterosi possano mettersi alla prova e contribuire ad un miglioramento di tutta la società attraverso il loro esempio.

Non serve spendersi per fare guerra contro qualsiasi cibo, è molto più importante diventare dei consumatori consapevoli delle proprie scelte alimentari migliorando la frequenza dei consumi verso prodotti a più basso contenuto di zuccheri semplici.

ta

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