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Cultura ed Educazione

Cittadini attivi

Riprendiamo la lettura della Costituzione della Repubblica Italiana attraverso gli occhi dei bambini, con la guida di Gherardo Colombo, ex magistrato, e Anna Sarfatti, insegnante e scrittrice, e il loro manuale “Sei Stato tu? La Costituzione attraverso le domande dei bambini”, edito da Salani nel 2009.

La motivazione di fondo che ci ha spinto e sostenuto nell’affrontare questo percorso è che i bambini hanno bisogno di stimoli per riflettere su quello che fanno, per imparare a scegliere, per valutare parole, comportamenti, idee proprie ed altrui, per diventare responsabili. Allo stesso tempo molti di loro hanno bisogno di essere aiutati a riordinare le tante informazioni che ricevono soprattutto dalla televisione e che sostano nei loro pensieri disancorate dall’esperienza e spesso dalle loro possibilità di reale comprensione.

Questi momenti di riflessione sui temi affrontati nella Costituzione sono occasioni di educazione al pensare e all’esprimere i pensieri, un lavoro senza riscontro nei quaderni dei piccoli ma fondamentale per il loro sviluppo.

Inoltre la capacità dello stare bene con gli altri è una conquista, non un dato di partenza. Le relazioni tra bambini vengono messe continuamente alla prova tanto dai piccoli conflitti quotidiani quanto dalle amicizie esclusive.

Per superare le difficoltà e mirare a una convivenza civile le regole della Costituzione rappresentano una fonte preziosa di riferimento. In questo modo si cerca di interiorizzare le regole e allo stesso tempo aprirle verso il mondo esterno. Partendo dalle regole note in contesti familiari, scolastici, sportivi, si cerca di portare i bambini a riflettere sulle regole dello Stato.




La Costituzione: l’uguaglianza dei cittadini

Nell’articolo 3 c’è scritto che tutti i cittadini sono uguali davanti alla legge senza differenze di sesso, razza, lingua, religione, opinioni politiche, condizioni personali e sociali. Però le differenze tra le persone sono tante. Per esempio: una famiglia ricca può avere due macchine, due case, due televisori, due computer, la piscina, ecc.; quella povera può vivere dentro una roulotte perché non ha neanche una casa. Non è giusto che la legge le consideri uguali!”

Essere uguali davanti alla legge non vuol dire che tutti devono essere nelle stesse condizioni.

Vuol dire che la legge, lo Stato, deve garantire a tutti le stesse possibilità di vivere libero e di seguire la propria strada. Vuol dire che se uno può studiare per imparare un mestiere, allora tutti devono poter studiare; che se uno può essere curato quando si ammala allora tutti devono poter essere curati se si ammalano; che se uno può dire quello che pensa, allora tutti devono poter dire quello che pensano; che se uno deve essere punito se ruba un’automobile, allora tutti quelli che rubano un’auto devono essere puniti.                                      Per questo la legge prevede che se uno non ha soldi è lo Stato che paga gli insegnanti, i medici, gli avvocati per lui.

Poi, però, ciascuno di noi si gioca le sue possibilità come crede e come vuole. C’è chi non ha voglia di studiare, e allora resta ignorante; c’è chi non rispetta gli altri e fa loro del male e va in prigione. La Costituzione dice quanto è importante l’uguaglianza. Sta a tutti noi fare in modo che quel che è scritto diventi realtà.

La Costituzione: il ripudio della guerra

L’articolo 11 dice che l’Italia ripudia la guerra e dà il suo aiuto per promuovere la pace e la giustizia tra le Nazioni. Perché abbiamo l’esercito se non vogliamo la guerra?”

L’Italia ripudia la guerra perché nei conflitti a fuoco le persone muoiono e per la Costituzione le persone non devono essere uccise (la stessa motivazione per cui da noi non esiste la pena di morte). Però può succedere che qualche altro Stato aggredisca l’Italia, perché vuole portare vie un pezzo del suo territorio, o perché si sente offeso da qualcosa.

La Costituzione dice che l’Italia, se aggredita, può difendersi. Per questo motivo abbiamo l’esercito.

Tuttavia il cuore dell’articolo 11 è la promozione della pace e della giustizia tra i popoli, e ogni azione diplomatica e governativa incoraggia sempre la condivisione di azioni di intesa e accordi di pace.

 

Bibliografia: Sei Stato tu? La Costituzione attraverso le domande dei bambini, 2009. Gherardo Colombo, Anna Sarfatti. Editore : Salani.

 

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